Clara Barton- Pioneer for Women and Aid Agencies

The Battle of Antietam had been raging for what seemed like days. The battlefield was loud, chaotic, dirty, and filled with the sounds of suffering from wounded soldiers. Through the haze of musket fire and smoke, a young woman in a red bonnet called Clara made her way to every injured man she could find, providing care and supplies. While offering a dying man a drink of water, Clara felt a tug in the sleeve of her dark dress. When she looked down to see what it was, she found a perfectly formed hole in the fabric near her elbow. A musket ball had gone through her dress and hit the man lying beside her, killing him instantly. Clara could afford herself only a moment to grieve before moving on to the next person in need of her help.

Clara was born Clarissa Harlow Barton on Christmas Day, 1821, in the central Clara-Barton-181468210a-56aa233b3df78cf772ac870cMassachusetts town of North Oxford. The youngest of four siblings by at least ten years, Clara grew up as a tomboy, learning “unladylike” activities and games from her older brothers and preferring school to domestic chores. She also grew up painfully shy, sometimes getting so anxious and overwrought that she refused to eat. However, in a pattern that would continue for the rest of her life, Clara was able to overcome her shyness completely whenever someone was in need. When her brother became ill, she stayed by his side and learned to administer his medication, including what she thought of as “great, loathsome, crawling leeches.”

Despite this early inclination towards nursing, Clara’s inner drive to help first lead her towards being a schoolteacher. She taught for several years in her hometown before moving to New Jersey, where she taught at a so-called “subscription” school. Such schools operated on fees paid by student’s parents, and there were many children denied from receiving an education because their parents couldn’t pay the fees. Clara believed this was wrong, and offered to teach school for free if the town would provide her a building. During her first week of running the first free public school in New Jersey, six students showed up; by the end of the year, there were over a hundred. Despite capably founding and leading the school for over a year, Clara was let go in favor of a male candidate. Undeterred, she moved to Washington D.C, where she worked as a clerk in the U.S Patent Office, during a time when it was rare for women to have government jobs. Soon after, the civil war broke out, and Clara’s life changed forever.

As wounded soldiers began appearing in the capital in droves, Clara saw firsthand the desperate need for supplies. She petitioned the army for the right to bring her own supplies to the battlefield. As a woman, it would be easier for her to bring relief working from outside the system then from the inside. In 1862 her pleas found a sympathetic senator, and Clara received permission to bring wagons of supplies to doctors and generals in battle. Clara and her volunteer service were at the front lines of some of the worst battles seen during the Civil War, including Cedar Mountain, Second Manassas, and Antietam.

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Those who might’ve known Clara as an anxious and shy young girl likely wouldn’t have recognized the single minded, confident woman dodging gunfire as she brought relief to hundreds of soldiers. Her toughness, spirit, grace, and timeliness on the front lines earned her the nickname “angel of the battlefield.” After the war was over, Clara lent her extensive knowledge of the soldiers and regiments she treated to help identify some 30,000 soldiers graves.

Her time with the army had taught her the importance of neutrality when it came to field nursing. Clara took what she had learned and traveled to Europe, where she worked with the International Red Cross based in Switzerland. She spent time providing aid during the Franco-Prussian war, and the experience galvanized her to action again. Upon returning to America, Clara began advocating tirelessly for the creation of a Red Cross branch in the United States. It took three presidents, but Clara finally got her wish in 1881. She served as its first president until 1903. During the first twenty years of it’s existence, the American Red Cross was largely devoted to disaster relief. Clara and her volunteers assisted in crises like a forest fire in Michigan and hurricanes in South Carolina and Galveston, Texas.

Clara Barton’s incredible legacy extended even further than the barriers she broke as a female combat nurse. She opened up new paths in the emerging field of volunteer service, and created an agency for service that would outlast her. Despite her accomplishments, she remained humble and committed to the service of others above her own well being. Of her time as a Civil War nurse, Clara wrote “I always tried… to succor the wounded until the medical aid and supplies could come up. I could run the risk; it made no difference to anyone if I were shot or taken prisoner.”

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TV Show Truths: Nicknames

In the TV show, “Little House on the Prairie,” there are three big nicknames that are used throughout the series, half-pint and Beth for Laura and then Manly for Almanzo. These nicknames were not just made for Hollywood, they were real nicknames, or terms of endearment, that Laura and Almanzo had in real life.

Half-pint:

Arguably the most famous nickname in the Little House series is Pa’s nickname for Laura, half-pint. This nickname is true in all three aspects: Laura’s books, her real life, and the TV Show. In Laura’s book, Little House in the Big Woods, this nickname makes its’ first appearance after Pa comes back from trapping. He exclaims, “Where’s my little half-pint of sweet cider half drunk up?” (LHBW 34). Laura then adds that Pa called her that because she was small. Throughout the rest of the series Pa normally just shortens it to half-pint. The name stuck with her even into These Happy Golden Years. In the TV show that nickname half-pint first appears in the pilot movie and is Pa’s nickname for Laura throughout the series. Starting in Season Six Laura wants to be treated as an adult. Pa says that when she is an adult he will stop calling her half-pint. In real life Laura’s nickname from Pa was also half-pint. In Pioneer Girl: The Annotated Autobiography, Laura mentions how Pa called her his “little half-pint of cider half drank up” (29). This reference Laura recalls is very similar to her account in Little House in the Big Woods. The only big difference between the three is that according to Laura’s books Pa stops calling her half-pint once she is married and in the TV show Laura and Pa come to an understanding that he can still call her half-pint once she is an adult and he continues to call her that throughout the series.

Manly:

Manly is Laura’s nickname from Almanzo, which has an interesting story behind it. In real life Laura and Almanzo exchange nicknames for each other when Almanzo first takes Laura for a sleigh ride, after her teaching term at the Brewster school.

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Laura and Almanzos Wedding Picture

This exchange is almost identical to exchange of nicknames in the TV show. Pioneer Girl discusses how Laura needed a name to call Almanzo. Almanzo told her that his folks call him “Manzo” but his brother, Royal, calls him “Mannie.” Laura misheard him and said that she would call him “Manly,” like Royal. Almanzo then told her of the mistake but she decided to stick with “Manly” because she liked it the best (Pioneer Girl 277). The TV show has the same encounter in the episode “Back to School,” Laura mishears Almanzo and calls him “Manly,” the only difference is that it occurs when he is picking up Eliza Jane, his sister, from teaching school and not on a sleigh ride. Another intriguing part about this name is that in the book series Laura and Almanzo never exchange nicknames. Laura writes about her and Almanzo’s first sleigh ride in These Happy Golden Years; however, for some reason she decided to omit the part where they exchanged names. The nickname Manly does appear in Laura’s book, The First Four Years and receives no introduction, the reader is just supposed to know that Manly is Almanzo. I think that the reason for this sudden change may be attributed to its’ publication after Laura’s death and that she did not edit the book the same way she did the others. Overall what I found most interesting about the relationship between the books, TV show, and real life in regard to this nickname, is that the TV show is closest to Laura’s real life and not the books.

Beth:

The nickname Beth is Almanzo’s nickname for Laura in the TV show. In real life Almanzo actually called Laura “Bessie.” Both of these nicknames originate from Laura’s middle name, Elizabeth. In real life Almanzo did not want to call Laura by her name because he had an older sister named Laura and did not really like the name (Pioneer Girl 277). This nickname exchange happened during the same sleigh ride where Laura decided to call Almanzo “Manly.” The TV show has the exchange happen slightly different and it does not occur at the same time Laura gives Almanzo the nickname “Manly.” This does occur in the same episode, “Back to School” however, it happens the next morning when Laura is walking back home because she “forgot” something. During Laura and Almanzo’s second meeting is when Almanzo mentions that Laura has a nickname for him, so he needs a nickname for her. He asks if she has any nicknames, which she responds saying that her Pa calls her half-pint. Almanzo says that will not work and asks her full given name, in which he chooses Beth from Elizabeth. In Laura’s book series, she never mentions Almanzo having a nickname for her and always refers to herself as Laura, even in The First Four Years. As for the change from “Bessie” to “Beth” there is no documented reason for the change; however, it is most likely that the change was made to better fit the time period in which the show was airing.

Dorothea Lange- Pioneer for Documentary Photography

In 1933 San Francisco, a portrait photographer named Dorothea was starting to get restless. The neat, orderly world she saw inside her studio and her camera lens was not reflected outside the windows, where hundreds of unemployed men and women were filling the streets. As a woman, it was not guaranteed that Dorothea could gain their trust enough to photograph them. But one day, she simply couldn’t sit on the sidelines any longer. She walked the streets of San Francisco armed with her camera and a deep respect for her subjects, and a new career in documentary photography was born.   

Dorothea Lange was born Dorothea Nutzhorn on May 26, 1895 in Hoboken, New Jersey. In 1902, when she was seven, Dorothea contracted polio, which left her right leg and foot considerably weakened. She later attributed this experience as the “most important thing” that had ever happened to her, giving her humility and compassion for others. Although she was physically disabled for the rest of her life, it never slowed her down, and many people who met her had no knowledge of her disability.  The ther childhood trauma leaving a profound impact on Lange was the separation of her parents when she was a teenager. She and her brother went with their mother to her maternal grandmother’s house. Dorothea attended six years of public school in New York City.  She would spend the majority of her time walking in the city, observing the way people lived and the differences between rich, middle class, and poor. She later credited this experience with being what taught her to “see” rather than just to look. With such an intense interest in seeing and understanding the world around her, it’s no wonder that Lange felt so drawn to photography.

 

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Lange enjoyed a successful career as a portrait photographer at her studio in SaFrancisco, but in the 1930’s she turned her camera to a darker subject. The Great Depression left thousands of men and women unemployed and/or homeless. Dorothea began traveling through the breadlines, labor demonstrations, and soup kitchens of San Francisco, documenting the suffering and resilience of those affected by the financial hardships. This bold and compassionate approach allowed her to get close to her subjects, and to capture pictures that few other photographers were able to get. Pictured right is her most famous photo of the San Francisco breadlines, titled White Angel Breadline. 

 

 

Her photographs earned her national attention, and in 1935 she began a four-year commission with the Farm Security Agency (FSA). The Great Depression in America coincided with a major agricultural crisis in the Midwest, known as the Dust Bowl. Hundreds of thousands of farmers were forced to leave their land and make their way west in search of migrant work in places like California. These families were usually destitute, often on the verge of starvation. It was this beaten-down and desperate landscape that Lange was sent to document. She stayed in several migrant camps across the lower-midwest, getting to know the families that lived there. It was in one of these camps that Lange took what is arguably her most famous picture, and indeed one of the 201307F03-KC-MigrantMother-Photo-Portrait-thumbnail-1200x1200most famous American photographs, Migrant Mother (pictured left). Migrant Mother profoundly affected the American public. The photograph put a human face on the suffering that thousands of Americans were facing in a part of the country that could sometimes feel very far away from the cities and coasts of America.

After her work with the FSA, Lange was awarded the prestigious Guggenheim fellowship. Her experiences working with the marginalized and forgotten people of the country inspired her to eventually reject that fellowship to photograph the realities of Japanese internment. After the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, anti-Japanese fear and racism in America grew to a fever pitch. In 1942, President Roosevelt issued an executive order that allowed for the internment of thousands of people of Japanese descent, simply for the reason of being Japanese. Lange was hired by the Office of War Information (OWI) to document the process, but her photographs of confused and frightened Japanese families being rounded into trains or barracks like cattle proved to be too incendiary. The OWI suppressed Lange’s photographs and they Dorothea Lange - Family of Japanese ancestry arrives at assembly center at Tanforan Race Track. 1942weren’t published for the first time until 2006.

Lange has been called a truly democratic photographer. Her work captured the lives of workers all over the country, no matter if they were black, white, Chinese, Mexican, or Japanese. The legacy she left behind didn’t just enrich the photographic world, but the wider world of American public conscious. She continued to work on social justice issues through her photography until her death in 1965 from esophageal cancer.

 

Book Recommendation- Dear America Series

Author: Multiple authors

In third grade, I set a goal to read every single Dear America book in my elementary school library. The books took up two full shelves, so it was a daunting task, but I soon found out the problem would be what I would do when I finished them all. Each book in the series is written in diary format, from the perspective of a young girl living through an important event in American history. Each girl has a distinctive voice and personality, making each book a joy to read. The topics run from immigration to New York to escaping concentration camps and fleeing to America, along with everything in between. I would recommend any of them, as there are plenty of stories to satisfy any history lover. However, for those looking for pioneer stories like Laura’s, there are a few options. Across the Wide and Lonesome Prairie is written from the perspective of a young girl encountering hope and hardship on the Oregon Trail. West to a Land of Plenty describes the life of a young Italian immigrant girl moving to the American West. My Face to the Wind is the diary of a teacher in a one-room schoolhouse on the prairie. (And if you’re looking for something for a young boy to read, a spin-off series called My name is America is told from a male perspective).

Pioneer Cooking: Parched Corn

The next step up from Lettuce Leaves with Vinegar and Sugar, Molly and I decided, was Parched Corn. The recipe sounded fairly simple and only used three ingredients: corn, butter, and salt.

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Parched corn is on page 212 of The Little House Cookbook by Barbara M. Walker and shows up in Laura’s book, On the Banks of Plum Creek, when talking about her Thanksgiving.

“There were corn dodgers and mashed potatoes. There were butter, and milk, and stewed dried plums. And three grains of parched corn lay beside each tin plate.

At the first Thanksgiving dinner the poor Pilgrims had had nothing to eat but three parched grains of corn. Then the Indians came and brought them turkeys, so the Pilgrims were thankful.

Now, after that had eaten their good, big Thanksgiving dinner, Laura and Mary could eat their grains of corn and remember the Pilgrims. Parched corn was good. It crackled and crunched, and its taste was sweet and brown.” (81)

Laura writes fondly of parched corn, so Molly and I thought we would try it, as it seemed simple enough to match our cooking abilities.

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Molly and I (with a cameo by Molly’s grandmother) attempt to figure out the true meaning of “dried corn.”

The recipe calls for one ear of dried field corn or one cup of dried sweet corn. I would recommend getting an ear of corn and having it dry out before attempting this recipe. This is where Molly and I ran into a few problems. First of all, the local grocery store did not have ears of corn at the time, as the crop in South Dakota was not in at that time.. Instead we used a can of sweet corn and left it out to dry. By the time we were ready to make the parched corn, our canned corn was nowhere near dry enough.. We ended up having to bake it in the oven at 200 degrees for about 30 minutes. At that point, we thought it was dry enough and decided to parch it.oven

In hindsight, I would say if you are going the canned corn route to either give your corn about a week to dry out on a cookie sheet or just start by drying it in the oven, which is probably the fastest way.

Once you have your dry corn, the process is fairly simple from there. The recipe says to use two tablespoons of butter to cover the pan. Once the butter is melted, cover the skillet with the corn kernels. Then stovestir the corn constantly, as it begins to puff up and jump on the skillet (and, in some cases, right onto your face) You will do this for about 3-5 minutes or until it looks done. At that point, you can add some salt for flavor and then it is ready to eat! The taste is similar to popcorn, but with more of the corn flavor retained. I would definitely recommend eating it fresh though. We brought some in for our coworkers the next day to try and they were not quite as impressed as we were!final-product.jpg

TV Show Truths: Reverend Alden

Another classic favorite on the hit TV show is Reverend Alden. His character in the TV show “Little House on the Prairie” was based off the Reverend Alden in the book series Little House on the Prairie and from Laura’s real life.

Walnut Grove:

Reverend Alden, whose full name is Edwin Hyde Alden, first came to Walnut Grove as a pastor. He was traveling around to help establish churches in the Minnesota area

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Picture Credits: IMDb

including: New Ulm, Sleepy Eye, Springfield, Walnut Grove, and Marshall. Due to his traveling, Reverend Alden only preached in Walnut Grove every few weeks (Pioneer Girl 72-73). Laura wrote about this in her book On the Banks of Plum Creek, “Three or four Sundays they went to Sunday school, and then again Reverend Alden was there, and that was a church Sunday” (188). The TV show also followed closely to the books and Laura’s real life, as Reverend Alden was not at church in Walnut Grove all the time, but he would come every few weeks. In the episode “Voice of Tinker Jones,” references were made to Reverend Alden’s monthly visits and how on the weeks that he was not there the elders would take turns preaching and the kids would have Sunday school.

De Smet:

In the TV show, Reverend Alden is present throughout all nine seasons and he continued to be present in the Ingalls real lives in De Smet as well. Reverend Alden was sent west to start new churches as he had done in Minnesota. It was with Reverend Alden that the Ingalls had the first church service in De Smet, which was held in the Surveyors house February of 1880 (Pioneer Girl 187-88). Laura also talks about the excitement of seeing Reverend Alden again in her book By the Shores of Silver Lake, “Laura could not say a word. Her throat was choked with the joy of seeing Reverend Alden again” (SL 215). The Ingalls and Reverend Alden were both equally surprised by their encounter by Silver Lake. Reverend Alden did not know that the Ingalls had left Walnut Grove and the Ingalls did not know that Reverend Alden was heading west starting more churches.

Family:

At the time the Ingalls met Reverend Alden in Walnut Grove in real life, he was married to Anna and had a young son named George (Pioneer Girl 73).  In Laura’s books, she never mentions Reverend Alden having a wife or family. The TV show did loosely follow Reverend Alden’s real life. In the episode “Preacher Takes a Wife,” Reverend Alden marries a woman named Anna. In the TV show, Reverend Alden was older than he was in real life and in Laura’s books. Due to him getting married later in life he did not have any children and he did not have a second marriage like he had in real life. Despite some of the changes, in the books, TV show, and real life, one thing that was not changed was Reverend Alden’s close relationship to the Ingalls family.

TV Show Truths: Eliza Jane Wilder

As I mentioned in the last post, many characters in the TV show “Little House on the Prairie” are based on the characters from Laura Ingalls Wilder’s book series, Little House. An interesting character to look at is Miss Eliza Jane Wilder, Almanzo Wilder’s older sister. In the TV series, Eliza Jane comes to town with her brother Almanzo at the beginning of Season Six. This is similar to when Eliza Jane moved to De Smet, Dakota Territory, with her younger brother Almanzo and her older brother Royal.

Homesteading:

Eliza Jane Wilder filed the claim on her land in 1879, but did not move to it permanently until around 1882; meanwhile, brothers Almanzo and Royal were working and living on their own claims, nearby. It was the fall of 1882 when Eliza Jane started teaching in De Smet (Pioneer Girl 241-42). In the book, Little Town on the Prairie, Laura also mentions Miss Wilder having a claim and a shanty just beyond the schoolhouse (149). The TV show condensed the different stages of the Wilders moving to De Smet in order to move the plot along; however, in Season Six Almanzo lives with his sister, Eliza Jane, instead of them living separately like they did in real life and the books.

Teaching:

In the TV series Miss Wilder first appears as Walnut Grove’s new teacher and Laura quickly takes a liking to her brother Almanzo. Then in the episode “Back to School,” where Eliza Jane and Almanzo first appear, Laura pretends to forget something in order to talk to Miss Wilder with the hopes of meeting her brother. A similar situation occurs in the book, Little Town on the Prairie, “Almanzo often brought [Eliza Jane] to the schoolhouse in the morning, or stopped after school to take her home. And always Laura hoped that Miss Wilder might, perhaps, sometime, ask her for a ride” (LTOP 149). At this point in the book series Laura had already met Almanzo when he took her to and from the Brewster school, but it provided the basis for Almanzo picking up and dropping off Miss Wilder at school. In real life, there is no account as to if this happened or not; however, the TV show did follow the book.

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Eliza Jane, pictured above, in her 60s.

Regarding Eliza Jane there is a discrepancy between her character in the TV show versus the book. Laura portrayed Eliza Jane as a mean school teacher who lacked control of the classroom in her book series. In Pioneer Girl, Laura also discussed how Miss Wilder lacked control of the classroom and that she did not believe in punishment, except for when it came to Laura and Carrie (246-47). The book, Farmer Boy, also gives some insights into Eliza Jane as a child. Laura described Eliza Jane as a strict, bossy older sister, which is explicitly shown in the chapter “Keeping House” (203-227). Even though that chapter shows Eliza Jane at her worst, it also shows her at her best, when she covers up the black polish mark in the parlor for Almanzo.

In the TV show, the producers cut Eliza Jane some slack and made her a more likeable person. She was still strict in the TV show, mentioning that she would give the students a zero on their homework if it was not turned in on time; and Willie, in away took Laura and Carrie’s place and always was punished. However, overall, she was a more amiable person than she is in the books.